Vitamin K for newborns
All the vitamins are needed for the healthy body such as vitamin K. Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is needed for prothrombin production, a blood clotting factor. Children and adult obtain the most of substances from bacteria in the gut and some of their food intake. Less of vitamin K can cause bleeding for a long period. In a bad condition, it can give the effect on small injuries. Bleeding as the cause of less vitamin K can cause the occurrence in others part of the body, such as in the brain (the type of stroke).
Babies produce very little vitamin K just after they were born. There is a little substance vitamin K in breastmilk as soon after birth. The breastfed babies can be low in vitamin K for the first weeks until the normal gut bacteria start producing it.
Reason for babies injecting vitamin K at birth is the assumption that newborns are born with a deficiency of vitamin K. This deficiency is based on the comparison of vitamin K levels of a newborn baby compared to normal adults. Low levels of vitamin K can cause a decrease in blood clotting ability, which can result in newborns being more susceptible to bleeding. However, the risk is quite small.
Risk Factors for Brain Hemorrhage (Bleeding)
- Prolonged labor
- Significant or excessive molding of the fetal head
- Birth trauma
- Labor with forceps & vacuum extraction
- Heart rate deceleration at the end of labor
Actually, the forces are focused on a successful birth process rather than to justify the statement “all infants are deficient in vitamin K”. The risk of a lack of blood clotting factors can be minimized if health workers do not provide intervention to newborns. Since this action can interfere with labor physiology associated with blood clotting factors.
The injecting vitamin K to a newborn immediately after birth starts on the day when a mother gives so much medication and intervenes during labor and birth so that they cannot push the baby out.
As a result, most babies are pulled out by forceps. Labor using these forceps often causes trauma to the baby’s head or face and often leaves significant bruising.
Usually, there will be enough clotting factors in the baby’s blood to control a simple amount of internal bleeding. There are three known forms of vitamin K:
- Vitamin K1 (phytomenadione), found in green vegetables. The current preparations are cremophor and A Mixed Micelle Formulation for Oral Delivery of Vitamin K.
- Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) is synthesized by normal intestinal flora such as Bacteroides fragilis and several strains of E. coli.
- Vitamin K3 (menadione). The often used is synthetic K vitamin but rarely given again in neonates because it is reported to cause hemolytic anemia.
However, the general medical practice now is to cut the umbilical cord immediately after birth. This practice significantly eliminates the baby’s blood count 25-40% of the baby’s normal blood volume.
Vitamin K deficiency due to lack of consumption of breast milk can result in the inability of the blood to clot. The baby’s body can produce additional vitamin K after the intestines have been contaminated with Vitamin-K-producing bacteria, but this does not last until the baby around 8 days old. In the process of modern birth aid, the use of forceps has been replaced by vacuum extraction, which can also cause physical trauma and bruising and bleeding in the former vacuum. Besides, drugs that are usually injected in the epidural and spinal anesthesia have side effects that might cause bleeding in the brain of a newborn baby.
Beneficial solution on Vitamin K for newborns
- Minimize intervention and use of pain medication to reduce the risk of intracranial bleeding. Interventions such as epidural anesthesia, IV narcotics, internal fetal monitoring, induction, and labor with surgery include extraction of forceps and vacuum (ventouse) placing the baby at greater risk of bruising and intracranial bleeding during or immediately after birth. Planning a delivery with a low intervention will limit the risk to the baby and mother by reducing the risks associated with this intervention.
- Consider asking for an oral dose rather than an injection. This eliminates overdose and reduces the risk of bleeding and yellow, and pain from injections and exposure to harmful preservatives. Also, Vitamin K is absorbed through the intestine. Although this may seem like an easy solution, be sure to discuss this option first with your doctor. Because hospitals are familiar with standard operating procedures, it can be difficult for them to correctly determine the oral dose for your baby.
- During the last few weeks of pregnancy, adding the consumption of foods with most Vitamin K.
Provision of Vitamin K1 Prophylaxis
The type of vitamin K used is vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) injection in an ampoule preparation containing 10 mg of Vitamin K1 per 1 ml.
How to inject prophylactic injections of vitamin K1 are:
- Put vitamin K1 into a 1 ml sterile disposable syringe, then inject it intramuscularly in the baby’s left thigh, the anterolateral part as much as 1 mg single dose, given no later than 2 hours after birth. The anterior lateral thighs (preferably because of the small risk of IV injection or of the femur and lesions of the sciatic nerve).
- Vitamin K1 injection is given before hepatitis B0 immunization (inject), with an interval of 1-2 hours.
- In infants who will be referred still given vitamin K1 in the same dosage and method.
- In infants born not helped by midwives, administration of vitamin K1 was carried out at the first neonatal visit (KN 1) in the same dosage and method.
- After injection of vitamin K1, observations are carried out.
Pay attention to these things:
- Women who plan a pregnancy, new childbirth, or breastfeeding should ask their doctor before taking a vitamin K supplement. Meanwhile, pregnant women should only consume it with the advice of a doctor.
- Do not take vitamin K beyond the duration specified by the doctor
- Be careful about taking vitamin K supplements if you are taking anticoagulant drugs, suffering from kidney problems, and suffering from liver disorders.
- If an allergy or overdose occurs, see a doctor immediately to get better treatment.